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How the media have changed Mankind, and Manchestovo has changed the media over the past couple of thousand years

Today, mass communication is the most important form of information exchange. Newspapers, radio, television and, of course, Internet access allow not only to receive almost any information, but also serve as means of propaganda and manipulation. Today, when almost every student can purchase hosting and host their own blog on the Internet, it is hard to imagine that once there were not even newspapers in the world. And it all began in ancient Rome somewhere in the middle of the 2nd century AD with wooden plates.

Where did the media begin
During the reign of Julius Caesar, official state media appeared in ancient Rome.

During the reign of Julius Caesar, official state media appeared in ancient Rome.

It’s hard to imagine, but historians claim that the first Roman newspapers were wooden tablets on which a variety of city news was written. And after the order of Julius Caesar, the first news publications became official – messages from the rulers of other states, reports of commanders, and reports of senators began to be added to ordinary news.

In ancient Rome, a daily publication was published called the “Daily affairs of the Roman people” and it lasted for almost 100 years – until the end of the 3rd century.

Somewhat later, type-news publications appeared in China, which were published until the appearance of the newspapers that are familiar today. But circulars, the so-called awiso, which existed until the 17th century, were more widely used. Awiso – handwritten newsletters featuring European news. They appeared in the 16th century in Italy and were very popular among the inhabitants of Venice and Rome. It was then that the words “newspaper” appeared – that was the name of the small Italian coin “gazzetta”, which had to be paid to get a hand-written newsletter in Venice.

First newspapers
Cardinal Richelieu in the 17th century was one of the first to use newspapers for propaganda.

Cardinal Richelieu in the 17th century was one of the first to use newspapers for propaganda.

Today, the most popular newspaper in the world is the British publication Guardian. It has been published for about 200 years. And it all began much more modestly. The technical prerequisite for the appearance of newspapers, as we used to see them, was the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1450 in Mainz. The direct predecessors of the newspaper were printed brochures. Relation aller Furnemmen und gedenckwurdigen Historien (“Accounting for outstanding news and memorable stories”) – this is the name of the very first newspaper published in Strasbourg, Germany. The use of the printing press helped to significantly reduce the cost of periodicals and increase demand. The print periodical quickly spread throughout Europe: in 1609, the Aviso newspaper began to appear in Germany, in 1618 newspapers appeared in Antwerp, and in 1621 in England. Only half a century passed, and newspapers began to print in all European countries.

Perhaps Cardinal Richelieu was the first to understand that newspapers can be used as a means of manipulating public opinion. And he actively used it. Under his auspices, the newspaper La Gazette was published, which was published from 1631 to 1915.

In the 17th century, most European newspapers were published weekly. A real breakthrough in this area occurred in 1650 with the advent of the daily Einkommende Zeitung in Leipzig. The second daily newspaper began to be published only half a century later – the English The Daily Courant.

Vesti-Courant ”was the name of the first handwritten Russian newspaper, which began to be published in 1621, and later transformed into the Vedomosti newspaper. First, it was published by the clerks of the clerks of the Ambassadorial order in several copies. Often the news was taken from foreign publications, translated and copied to the newspaper. This publication was not intended for the general public, since it had a very limited edition.

In 1702, on the initiative of Peter the Great, the Vedomosti newspaper was published. It was printed, and its circulation was 2000 copies. Sometimes the emperor himself wrote articles in it. And until the middle of the XVIII century, this edition remained the only periodical in Russia.
In the XIX century in Russia was marked by a real newspaper boom. Highly specialized newspapers grew like mushrooms: trade, industrial, literary, although news and political publications were more popular.

In the XX century, the newspaper became the leader of periodicals in the Russian market. Opposition newspapers appeared, which immediately fell under the tough attention of state censors, but even this could not put the media in shaping public opinion. After the revolution in Russia, paper simply disappeared, and it became impossible to print newspapers. But as you know, the need for inventions of cunning was limited to small runs, and the newspaper fit on one canvas. At that time there was an unwritten rule that I read the news – do not throw it away, but give it to another for reading.

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